Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Backbone network Essay The chapter starts out explaining how a BN (Backbone Network) works. Backbone Network: Connecting all of the LANs of an organization entails another type of network (BN). A properly designed backbone network provides a high-speed circuit that serves as the central conduit across which the LANs of an organization can communicate. They can also be used to connect LANs within a building, across a campus, and, increasingly, across much greater distances. A BN, as indicated by its name, is a network of its own. Besides connecting the various network segments, the backbone may have its own devices that can be accessed by other network segments Metropolitan area network (MAN): MAN spans a city and is often used to connect remote BNs. MAN in some cases can be considered a citywide BN and as the geographic distances they cover have increased, especially with the use of fiber-optics. BNs connect networks between floors of a building, across a city, or between states and countries. BN and MAN are sometimes used interchangeably, based on the scope of the BN. Network Segments: Each individual LAN owned by an organization is reffered to as a network segment. Horizontal Segment: A moderate- to large-scale organization might have a network segment on each floor of a multistory building. Because each network segment, or LAN, typically occupies its own floor, this type of network segment is often referred to as a horizontal network. For example, assume that a business occupies three floors of a building. On each floor is a separate LAN, or horizontal network segment. Vertical Network: LANs could, and probably would, be connected to each other by a BN. This type of multi-floor connection is an example of a vertical network. The BN in this instance is the central connecting cable running vertically from floor to floor that enables the horizontal networks to communicate with each other. Part of configuration analysis includes determining how each network segment connects to the BN. Generally, each network segment is connected to the BN using either a switch or a router. Deciding which Backbone Protocol to use? Questions to ask: 1) Traffic Demands 2) Constant Communication 3) Mostly Independent Gigabyte Ethernet: is a very popular choice for BNs. The IEEEÃ¢â¬â¢s initial standard for Gigabit Ethernet is the 802.3z standard. Gigabit Ethernet allows for a data rate of 1,000 Mbps, or 1 Gbps. A major advantage of all of the officially recognized forms of Gigabit Ethernet is that each form builds on the standards of the preexisting Ethernet protocol. This means that the MAC layer and access method for Gigabit Ethernet are the same as those for standard and Fast Ethernet. Additionally, Gigabit Ethernet supports both half- and full-duplex communications. Other protocols that might be used for a backbone include Frame Relay (FR) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Frame Relay and ATM are also frequently associated with WANs. As such, discussion of Frame Relay and ATM will be reserved for Chapter 7, which focuses on WANs. Backbone Architecture: two most common BN architectures are distributed and collapsed. Factors that influence a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s decision as to which architecture to use include business needs, the condition of the physical facility (sometimes called the plant or campus), how users need to communicate, and the budget. The larger and more complex the organization, the more critical the decision becomes as to what type of backbone architecture to use. It can be very costly to change an existing backbone architecture once one has been put in place. Distributed Backbone: runs throughout the entire enterprise. This type of backbone uses a central cable to which the network segments are connected. The central cable, which is the backbone, requires its own protocol, such as Gigabit Ethernet; it is also its own network. The backbone is considered to be distributed because each network segment has its own cabled connection to the backbone. The backbone is distributed to the LANs by connecting the LANs to the backbone. They maybe connected with routers and switches. In some cases even servers. A distributed backbone typically has separate routers that connect each logical network to the backbone. Because separate routers are used, internetwork traffic may have to pass through several routers to reach its destination. One advantage of a distributed backbone is that it allows resources required by most, if not all, internetworking users to be placed directly on the BN. Collapsed Backbone: connects all of the network segments to a centra l, single router or switch. This central device is, in effect, the backbone. The network segments typically connect to the central backbone device by means of a hub, switch, or router. Because only a single,central backbone device is used, cabling is greatly reduced. Furthermore, additional connecting devices are not required. A collapsed backbone can result in significant cost savings. Backplane: is an internal, high-speed communications bus that is used in place of the connecting cables found in a distributed backbone. Because fiber-optic cabling is used to connect network segments to the collapsed backboneÃ¢â¬â¢s backplane, long distances are possible. With fiber-optic cabling, network segments may be widely scattered across a building or even a campus. Backbone Fault Tolerance: is the capability of a technology to recover in the event of error, failure, or some other unexpected event that disrupts organizational communications and functions. Should the backbone fail for some reason, internetworking may no longer be possible. In such an event, business could come to a standstill and, depending on the recovery time, irreparable damage may occur. However, if fault tolerance has been built into the backbone, internetworking will likely still be possible. Fault tolerance will determine its ability to survive an error, damage, or some other unforeseen circumstance. Redundant Backbone: Should one backbone become unavailable, the other can still be used for internetworking traffic. Furthermore, using a redundant backbone also allows for the load balancing of internetworking traffic. By placing half of the network segments on each backbone, internetworking traffic is shared, or balanced, across the backbones, resulting in improved communications performance. It is also VERY expensive. Wiring Closet: The patch panel is usually housed in the wiring closet. The wiring closet may also contain servers that provide resources across the enterprise. In a multifloor design, wiring closets are usually placed one above the other. Placing the wiring closets in vertical alignment greatly facilitates their connection. Data Center: usually moderately to largely spaced and house all of the necessary networking equipment for the entire enterprise in a central location. As with wiring closets, data centers should be tightly secured and environmentally appropriate for the equipment they house. The data center may contain routers, switches, servers, and even network segment hubs that connect individual devices to their network segment. Rack: Hubs, Servers, Switches, Routers are bolted to them. Packet Errors: Related to Early Collisions and Late Collisions Early Collisions: Collisions in an Ethernet network are to be expected, and the collisions themselves are not a problem. However, when too many collisions occur, say, 5 percent or more of the total packets, then corrective measures are needed. If this happens too often, the segment network may have to be split. Late Collisions: can be caused by excessive cable lengths. Another potential cause is the use of too many repeaters. Late collisions can result in lost packets that require retransmission by higher-level protocols. Runts: Too small of a packet, may result from a defective NIC. They are also caused when a transmitting device stops transmission in the middle of a packet due to the detection of a collision. Runts can never be entirely eliminated, because they result from normal collisions, but when the number of runts is greater than the monitored number of collisions, a problem is indicated, may be caused by a defective NIC. Giants: Too large of a packet, and usually caused by a jabbering NIC. Jabbering: NIC is one that is transmitting continuously and incorrectly. Unlike runts, giants are not the result of a normal Ethernet operation, and therefore indicate a definite problem. Whereas a bad NIC is the mostly likely cause of a giant, another hardware device may also be faulty or a cable segment may be defective. If a NIC or cable segment is found to be the cause of the problem, the best solution is to remove and discard the failing component and replace it with a new one. Broadcast Storm: When the total broadcast traffic reaches or exceeds a rate of 126 packets per second, a broadcast storm results. The major problem with such a storm is that it is self-sustaining, resulting in a flood of garbage packets that eventually consume all network bandwidth, preventing any other valid communications from occurring. SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Services): supports the exchange of data between LANs in different parts of a city or between network segments over a large campus. SMDS is a packet-switched datagram service for high-speed MAN traffic. SMDSIP (Switched Multimegabit Data Services Interface Protocol): provides for three layers of protocols that define user information frame structuring, addressing, error control, and overall transport. SMDSIP Level 1 defines the physical interfaces and the type of trans- mission medium and signaling system used. SMDSIP Level 2 provides an access method, defined in IEEE Project 802.6, that is referred to as a distributed queue dual bus (DQDB). (It is beyond the scope of this text to go into the details of DQDB; however, it is interesting to note that the access method used is not contention or token passing, but one called distributed queues.) SMDSIP Level 3 accepts user data and adds header and trailer information to it for processing by the SMDS network.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Lord of the Flies Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Lord of the Flies had 4 main characters: Ralph, Simon, Jacky, and Piggy. All of the boys had a profound impact on the book but one boy was very intense and amazing. That boy was Simon. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Simon was the kind of person who kept to himself and looked at the world from a different point of view. His disease made him take life much more seriously than the rest of the group. The ironic thing about this is that even though he took life more seriously than others, he was the first to die. He was different because he was a member of the choir and unlike the other member of the choir, he did not hunt. Even Ralph was quoted as saying he was funny and queer. But he was right. He did not like the company of the other boys because on page 132 of the book, he is seen in his little bower where he just sits and becomes one with his mind. Most of the other boys are seen playing but not Simon. His maturity level and intelligence were far greater than some adults in this day and age. Many would compare Simon to Jesus Christ. Simon would help the needy and unfortunate by giving Piggy meat when the others would not give it to him. Simon would tell the boys that the beast was within and like Jesus, many would not listen until too late. Simon and Jesus Christ died in the same manner. Both died trying to tell others what was best for them. Simon tried to tell the kids that the beast was within themselves even when he was dying but none listened. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2 SimonÃ¢â¬â¢s conversation with Lord of the Flies is the turning point of the book. It really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a conversation because Simon says nothing. A nod of the head and shaking is the only language Simon speaks. The Lord of the Flies knows a lot about Simon. He knows that Simon is a loner and keeps to himself. The Lord of the Flies tells Simon that they are going to have fun or, in other words, hunt. Ralph could not even escape the beast. But if the beast did not exist inside your mind then it would not tell the kids to hunt. The Lord of the Flies told Simon if he tried to tell the boys that the beast was within themselves, then he would die.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Law and morals Part A Law has been defined by Sir John Salmons as the body of principles recognized and applied by the state in administration of Justice. There are two theories on what law Is, the natural law theory and the positivist law theory Lloyd a natural law theorist defined the law as the constant assertion that there are objective moral principles which depend upon the natural of the universe and can be discovered by reason Natural law theorists believe that for law to be valid It must coincide with natural law.Natural law theorist Aristotle describes natural law to be the law of nature. Positivist law theorists such as John Austin would describe law as Ã¢â¬Ëa law which exists to be law though we happen to dislike It' positivists such as Jeremy Beneath rejected natural law theories, he describes them as Ã¢â¬Ënonsense on stilts' his key argument was that natural law was based on principles that could not be proved. Legal positivists believe that a law that is made In a m anner recognized by the sovereign power of the state is valid irrespective of its content.Legal rules have many different characteristics. For example breach of legal rules can result in state sanctions and reoccurred Ã¢â¬â a S. 47 PAPA 1861 offence carried and a maximum sentence of 5 years. Compliance is not a matter of choice when it comes to legal rules. These rules are imposed upon all members of society. Compulsory compliance applies to judge made decisions as well. The case of R v R established that man could be found guilty of raping his wife, this was a Judge made law.Fuller would argue that this is not valid law as it is retrospective. Legal rules are made and take affect at a precise time. A precedent is created in the Judgment of case and it applies to future cases and rower courts. The legislation will only start to take effect at a precise time for example the Smoke Free Premises and Enforcement Regulations , implemented a ban on smoking in public places , were made on 13th December 2006 but came in to effect on the 1st of July 2007.Phil Harris defines society Ã¢â¬ËMorality as a set of beliefs, values, principles and standards of behavior. Compliance with moral rules is voluntary, so people have a choice as to whether or not they follow these. People make personal decisions as to what they consider moral and immoral. Moral duties of Individuals ray. For example some people may believe that abortion is immoral while others consider It acceptable. Moral rules develop gradually. They often stem from religious rules made thousands of years ago.Over time, what society once considered Immoral, can become acceptable. For example attitudes towards homosexuality continue to change Moral rules are enforced Informally , usually through social or domestic pressure for example John terry lost his title as the England football team captain because of his Infidelity Sir John Salmons describes the relationship teen law and morality as two Intersecting circle s, with the Intersection representing laws with moral values and the separate areas for laws and morals with no connection.Many laws have a moral connection such as the law against murdering another person this can be traced back to religious scriptures such as the 10 Commandments and is punishable by a mandatory life sentence Public morality can influence changes in the law, like abortion was legalized by the Abortions Act consenting adults as society changed to accept homosexuality the more law has followed this change by reducing the age of consent to make it the same for trousseaux couples in 2000. Law reform may result from a campaign to change public morality. Howard league for penal reform persuaded the government to take a look at capital punishment.The government refused to change the laws because society considered death penalty to be morally correct. Subsequently a pressure group was set up, during the years of 1955-1957 public opinion was changed by the campaign; and the government introduced laws to abolish the death penalty Public morality can be influenced by law reform such as the Disability Discrimination Act 995 as by the Disability Discrimination Act 2005, which makes it against the law to discriminate against disable people in any areas of employment, education, access to goods, facilities and services and the function of public authorities.It can be argued that legislation is introduced to with the aim of educating the public to recognize morally wrong behavior. Thus demonstrating the convergence between the two Some legal rules appear to have no moral connection. Like the fact that smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol is legal but cannabis is illegal. Road traffic laws such as irking on a yellow line. In Britain there is no Good Samaritan law, however we all have a moral duty to help those around us if they are in danger.For example a passer-by will not be legally held responsible if they don't help someone drowning. But they do have a mo ral duty to help them this was shown in 2007 when 2 Peso's were subjected to bad media and moral outcry when they failed to help a drowning boy. The reason for divergence between moral and legal rules is that the moral attitude might not me widespread and they may not reflect popular morality The UK as a large multicultural, multiracial society, with citizens with different views on politics and religion.For example some people regard abortion as immoral while others see it as acceptable for medical reasons only at the second reading of the human fertilization and embryology bill on may 20th 2008 MSP voted against reducing the current 24 weeks abortion limit to 20 weeks. Therefore demonstrating that although there is a relationship between Law and Morality it will always be partial. Art B The wolfed report was issued in 1957; it was set up to consider the law relating to nonsexual acts & prostitution, also to see the function of the criminal law in such cases. The committee said the function of the law is to pressure public order and decency and to protect citizens from what is offensive or injurious and to provide sufficient safeguards against exploitation and corruption of others, particularly those who are vulnerable.The function of the committee is not to intervene in private life of citizens or to enforce any particular pattern of behavior. The committee made three proposals which were, homosexual acts between two concerting adults should e made legal, soliciting in the streets should be made an offence and selling of services for money should be a private matter. The Hart and Devils debate was prompted by the wolfed report by the wolfed report. The focus of the debate was the extent to which the law can enforce moral rules.Lord Devils set out his view in a book (the enforcement of morals, with Hart setting up his views in his own book that the minority should not be made to conform to the view of the majority when in private. Sir James Stephen argued in his book liberty, equality, fraternity (1874) that o shouldn't attempt to distinguish between self-regarding act and acts which regards others is like an attempt to distinguish between acts which happen in time and acts that may happen in space.The wolfed report supported Harts view that law and morality should be separate, however various cases decided since the report show that Judges are imposing their moral views on their Judgments, for example R v Brown. This is an example of how moral change led to legal change. Devil's views are in line with those of Sir James Stephen, as Devils believed that individual privacy should be respect.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
University of Bedfordshire-Ajman Campus BA (Hons) Project Submitted to Dr. Tariq As a Requirement Unit code: Marketing Research (Morning Class) ________________________________ Student Name: | Registration Number: | Amanullah Ashraf | 1033872 | Acknowledgement First I would like to Thank Allah for giving me knowledge. I am very Thankful to our subject teacher Dr. Tariq for guiding and helping me in this Research. I gratefully thank my parents, Friends and all classmates who cooperated with me in the time when I needed them. Also I would like to thank all the Respondents who gave their time in filling the Questionnaire. Abstract The purpose of this dissertation is to identify what areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦1.4 Scope and limitations of the study The scope of the study is to understand that the Internet is the latest medium through which consumers demand for their needs and wants thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the online sellers should know what are the factors that influence the online consumers and also there are some factors according to which consumers buy their products online and it is very important for the online sellers to take that factors in to action so that they can satisfy the consumers needs and wants and enter in to the online market competition Easily. There are many factors that will influence the online consumers but we in this research will select only the main factors that will influence the consumers so therefore we will limit these factors to few so that we can understand its effect on online consumers and also we will limit the consumers characteristicsÃ¢â¬â¢ and buying process by seeing how they are dealing with the service or product they bought but not by seeing the consumer theories or models. 1.5 Significance of the study This research will not only increase the impact of online shopping on consumers but it will also help the people who are too busy to do shopping online in some minutes it will save their time and will also help the disabled people more over because if they are not able to walk or had other problem they will most probably prefer the online shopping and also this research will clearly show howShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Consumer Behavior On Online And Virtual Shopping Environment1860 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAssessing the Impact of Consumer Behavior in Online and Virtual Shopping Environment Introduction Consumer behavior plays an important role in developing marketing strategies for a marketer with an objective to deliver marketing goals in a given span of time, which could be possible by understanding the psychology of consumer from his/her buying behaviors that could be influenced by an environment and other factors in which an individual live-in. The decision to which consumer concludes while makingRead MoreImpact Of Internet On Modern Business1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦....5 Article 3Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦6 Analysis...Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦...7 Appendices.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..8 Ã¢â¬Æ' Deri Kusniawati Dr. Mario Beruvides IE 4320 4 Dec. 2015 Internet Impacts on Modern Business Introduction Internet is a powerful and an influential tool in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Nowadays, people can easily access internet from anywhere and anytime. It has an enormous influence for various aspects of life, such as business, educationRead MoreOnline Shopping Conduct And Internet Shopping Essay1659 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesINTRODUCTION Online shopping is almost to synonymous to customary shopping through brick and mortar stores. As indicated by UCLA Center for Communication Policy, online shopping has been rising as a standout among the most famous web exercises, marginally behind e-mailing and internet surfing and in addition surpasses online entertainment search and online news. Online shopping conduct (additionally called web purchasing conduct and Internet shopping/purchasing conduct) implies to the procedure ofRead MoreConsumer Attitude : An Organization Of Motivational, Emotional, Perceptual And Cognitive Processes1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Consumer Attitude An attitude may be defined as a feeling of favorableness or unfavorableness that an individual has towards an object (be it a person, thing or situation). A wider definition of attitude sees it as Ã¢â¬Å"an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environmentÃ¢â¬ (Hawkins, Best and Coney, 2004). More specifically, Ã¢â¬Å"attitude refers to knowledge and positive or negative feelings about an object or activityÃ¢â¬ (PrideRead MoreAnalysis Of Consumer Behavior And Online Shopping Essay1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnalysis of Consumer behavior in online shopping with especial reference to Pune Abstract: It is now become accustomed to watch advertisement of e-commerce companies on television. Internet shopping is responsible for transformation of marketing scenario in India. One click on screen of computer presents hundred of products to see and to compare with each other. Undeniably turnover of such companies involved in this business is making new records everyday. Day by day the number of internet savvyRead MoreThe Impact of Culture on Consumer Behavior1788 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Running Head:The impact of Culture on consumer behavior The impact of culture on consumer behavior [Author] [Institute] [Instructor] [Course] Table of Contents Abstract: 3 Introduction: 4 General cultural differences: 4 Culture other than Own: 5 Own Culture: 5 Cultural differences in marketing and consumer behavior: 6 Consumption: 6 Motives for Consumption: 8 Implications of cultural differences on marketers: 8 Discussion: 8 Examples of behaviors: 9 Conclusion: 9 Read MoreThe Impact Of Privacy On Online Purchase Decisions Essay723 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesJournal of Marketing, 61(2): 35-51. Donthu, N., and Garcia, A. (1999). The internet shopper. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(3): 52-58. Egelman, S., Tsai, J., Cranor, L., and Acquisti, A. (2004). Studying the impact of privacy information on online purchase decisions. Carnegie Mellon University, pp. 2. Gefen, D., and Silver, M. (1999). Lessons learned from the successful adoption of an ERP system. Proceedings of the 5th international Conference of the Decision Sciences Institute (pp.1054-1057)Read MoreDigital Revolution : E Commerce1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageschanged their consumer behavior from the traditional mode to more rely on the internet shopping. On the other hand, more companies have realized that the consumer behavior transformation is unavoidable trend, and thus change their marketing strategy. As the recent researches have indicated that, the internet shopping particularly in business to consumer (B2C) has risen and online shopping become more popular too many people. There are many reasons for such a rapid developing of internet shopping, whichRead MoreAn Investigation Of Online Shopping1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction: An investigation of online shopping and how does it influence NTIC studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ daily life. Observations have shown that there has been a rapid development in an economic world. We have witnessed a tremendous change about shopping online. According to UCLA Center for Communication Policy (2001), online shopping has been regarded as the third most prevalent activity on the Internet, only followed by e-mail and website usage. It plays an important role, not only in retail stores, but alsoRead MoreAn Outline for a Research on Oline Shopping Essay566 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesof online shopping needs to be thoroughly investigated from the perspective of trust of online sellers and consumer trust in online shopping. Rationale is that online shopping can be researched from many aspects one of which is consumer trust that is caused by multiple categories of trust. This research focuses on the most important category Ã¢â¬Å"the trust of online sellersÃ¢â¬ and its factors. 1.2. Research Questions Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the factors of trust of online sellers that influence the consumer trust
Friday, December 27, 2019
The white supremacy movie The Oscar-winning best picture -- extensively prefigured, especially by white liberals, for proceeding an honest discussion of race in the United States -- is, in fact, a holdup in the crucial project of forcing white America to come to terms the reality of race and racism, white supremacy and white privilege. The central theme of the film is simple: Everyone is prejudiced -- black, white, Asian, Iranian and, we are responsible, anyone from any other racial or ethnic group. We all carry around racial/ethnic baggage thatÃ¢â¬â¢s filled with unfair stereotypes, long-stewing grievances, raw anger, and crazy fears. Even when we think we have made progress, we find ourselves caught in frustratingly complex racial websÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Studies continue to demonstrate how, on average, whites are more likely than members of racial/ethnic minorities to be on top on measures of wealth and well-being. Looking specifically at the gap between white and black America, on some measures black Americans have fallen further behind white Americans during the so-called post-civil rights era. For example, the typical black family had 60 percent as much income as a white family in 1968, but only 58 percent as much in 2002. On those measures where there has been progress, closing the gap between bl ack and white is decades, or centuries, away. What does this white supremacy mean in day-to-day life? One recent study found that in the United States, a black applicant with no criminal record is less likely to receive a callback from a potential employer than a white applicant with a felony conviction. In other words, being black is more of a liability in finding a job than being a convicted criminal. Into this new century, such discrimination has remained constant. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s white supremacy. Many people, of all races, feel and express prejudice, but white supremacy is built into the attitudes, practices and institutions of the dominant white society. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not the product simply of individual failure but is woven into society, and the material consequences of it are dramatic. It seems that the people who made Ã¢â¬Å"CrashÃ¢â¬ either donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand that, donÃ¢â¬â¢t care, or both. The character in the filmShow MoreRelatedMovie Analysis : The Movie Crash 1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesneed to know in a short amount of time.When it comes to the textual analysis of it all it all depends on how the script is written not only that but how the script is played out in the film. In the textual analysis of a film you have to really pay attention to the environment during the film. You have to pay attention to the race in the film, the themes throughout the film and the gender roles played in the film. In the movie Crash we see many pairs where they each have their own different points ofRead MoreMovie Analysis : Crash 1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1108 23 November 2015 Movie Analysis Although the movie Crash aired in 2004, the movie does a phenomenal job at depicting social conflicts that are still evident in 2015. Crash, also deals with wide range of controversies and offers multiple narratives. And since narrative is always a two-way street, the movie does a great job of showing two perspectives of everything. More specifically, it challenges our ethical and moral beliefs in a sense that many of the scenes in the movie reside in the grey areaRead MoreMovie Analysis : Crash 1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescalled Ã¢â¬Å"CrashÃ¢â¬ , this movie basically talks about racism and the impact it has on the lives of people in Los Angeles. This movie got a good response from the viewers, as it concentrated on some real harsh realities of racism and asked some hard questions which are generally avoided in movies. This movie clearly promotes the a very delicate issue, and hence requires some detailed assessment. I personally feel the movie was good and it portrayed some very common events of racism, I think Ã¢â¬Å"CrashÃ¢â¬ showsRead MoreMovie Analysis : Crash 1853 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages GENRE I RACE IN THE FILM CRASH DEPARTMENT OF FILM AND CREATIVE WRITING INTRODUCTION TO FILM STUDIES B MODULE CODE: 09 24802 STUDENT ID: 1613440 MICHELE AARON UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM 1. Introduction This paper is a critical analysis of the American film Crash, directed by Paul Haggis which was performed for the first time in 2004. This essay will therefore deal with Gender I and Race, two of the approaches discussed in the subject Introduction to Film Studies B in the secondRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Crash 963 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesindividual, for instance the way they perceive others and also the way they perceive themselves. Paul HaggisÃ¢â¬â¢s movie Ã¢â¬Å"CrashÃ¢â¬ conceptualize on this idea and interpret it in an in entirely different way; so that we can see that there are reasons and motives to why our society is separated this type of way. The movie is full of many sociological issues, such as gender, race, and social class. The movie is centralize around racism, and wants to give its own interpretation on racism, the reasons why it happensRead MoreDepth Analysis of the Movie Crash2037 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespaper will provide a broad analysis of the movie Crash, and yet a specific picture of visual narrative techniques and audio techniques. The categories contributing to the nucleus and major movie components are theatrical elements, cinematography, editing, and sound. The Academy Award winning movie Crash is a story about society s controversial subjects projected in an in your face depiction of lives that in some way or another, cross. Depth Analysis of the Movie Crash The over-all theme ofRead MoreMovie Analysis : The Movie Crash1926 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Movie Crash takes place in Los Angeles, California in the winter time. Throughout this movie, all of the stories connect in one way or another. This movie shows the lives of a diverse population of people, they have different race and social classes. In one of the first parts of the movie, they show a racist pawn shop owner that refuses to sell a gun to a man, simply because he is speaking to his daughter in another language, he generalizes all people of that race and accuses the man of Ã¢â¬Å"killingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Crash 1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCRASH! This was the last sound Tim Horton heard before he crashed into the woods. His drunk body made the violent rolling of the car feel like nothing. His mind still back at the bar, crying for a better life. He wanted this attempt to be painless and quick, but was depressed to see his immaculated body upside down in his turnovered car. The drunk had no more tears to shed, he had no screams to let out; all he could do was hit his head against the seat. He wanted something to break ,but his mindRead MoreMovie Analysis : Crash 1606 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesare many movies out there that take a viewpoint form so many angles, this movie Crash does this that. Watching this mo vie brought about many emotions from my own life but to get a sense of what other people in the world go through when it comes to interacting with other races, the experiences weÃ¢â¬â¢ve had with them and also the perspectives we hold inside of us overall. This chapter will look at three scenes form the move crash and break each one of them down to showcase the significance of what individualRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Crash Essay1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWriting InquiryÃ Ã September 29, 2106Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Crash Movie EssayÃ Ã Since the beginning of time, the world has been intolerant of people that are different or stand out. People have an issue accepting others that have contrasting views, values, opinions, beliefs, and even appearances. Whether we like it or not, there is a little bit racism in all of us, although it may not be as evident in one person as it is in another. In the 2004 film,Ã Crash, race is portrayed as being an abnormality that negatively
Thursday, December 19, 2019
LGBT Adoption Ã¢â¬Å" There are approximately 100,000 children and/ or adolescents who are in the Child Welfare System waiting to be put into foster care or be adoptedÃ¢â¬ (Kreisher). The number of children living with 1 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender (LGBT) parent today ranges from six to fourteen million children or adolescents. Adoption is to take into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family legally and raise as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own child. Although adoption is first spoken of in the Bible, the first recorded adoption takes place in 1693 in the colonial United States when the governor of Massachusetts adopts a son marking the first legal adoption (Sezun). Adoption begins in the United States in 1851 when Massachusetts passed the first child adoption act (Herman). In 1920,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦More and more LGBT couples want to adopt. By allowing LGBT couples to adopt, you are taking more children out of foster care and placing them in loving homes. LGBT parents typically adopt the children with the greatest needs. Twenty-one of the fifty states currently allow for second-parent adoption. A majority of states no longer deny custody or visitation rights based on sexual orientation. There is no evidence that LGBTs are unfit parents (Lyons 25-26). Good parenting is not influenced by sexual orientation, but by parents creating a loving and nurturing home. With increased inclusiveness, more children are now in homes with qualified parents over being in the state system. Adoptive parents are being discriminated on adopting children based on gender identity, sexual orientation, or marital status and so more children are Ã¢â¬Å"aging outÃ¢â¬ of the foster care system. Children are aging out of foster care because the federal government is not allowing parents to adopt based on sexual orientation, gender identity, or marital status and those children are going without having the loving and nurturing home that they need so the Every Child Deserves a Family Act should be put in place. The policy that the government should choose to allow for any parent to adopt children is the Every Child Deserves a Family Act. Under this act moreShow MoreRelatedLGBT Adoption2934 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pageshead: LGBT ADOPTION 1 LGBT Adoption Thomas Gregorcyk Ottawa University LGBT Adoption New JerseyÃ¢â¬â¢s statewide parenting legislation espouses a progressive stance on the matters of same-sex parenting and child care in the processes of adoption and foster parenting. The Garden State allows for same-sex adoption; allows single homosexuals to adopt; and allows second parent same-sex adoption (LifelongRead MoreSame Sex Adoption Is Controversial1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSame-Sex Adoption Since the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s approximately 8-10 million children in the US alone are raised in a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender (LGBT) household. Same-Sex Adoption is controversial because many people throughout the world are against LGBT adoption; but when faced with the number of kids who pray everyday for someone out there wanting to be the parent of a foster child, it is difficult to understand why the topic of gay adoption is controversial. Yes, there can be a bad outcome butRead MoreShould Lgbt Couples Be Allowed? Adopt Children?1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestransgender couples are not capable of producing their own children with their partners and turn to adoption. Most of these couples are turned down simply because they are homosexual. LGBT couples should be allowed to adopt children because it will give a child the opportunity to have a bright future and will provide children with loving, caring parents in safe homes. People who are against LGBT couples adopting children believe that children need parents of both genders in their life in order toRead MoreAn essential or a larger focal association for the representation of the LGBT group is not1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfocal association for the representation of the LGBT group is not existing, yet various LGBT rights associations are active around the world. The LGBT social movements that are organized today are consisting of a wide range of political activism and cultural activities. These exercises incorporate campaigning, road walks, social gatherings, media, craftsmanship, and research. Also, included, not constrained to, in the social objectives of the LGBT social developments are the tests in the prevailingRead MoreGay Adoption And Parenting : A Of The Sexual Orientation Issues Affecting The Society Today1891 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEnglish 100 December 7, 2016 Gay adoption and parenting Gay adoption and parenting are one of the sexual orientation issues affecting the society today. It involves two men who adopt children and raise them as their kids. There are various ways of adopting children, including agency adoption, independent adoptions and the identified adoptions (Golombok et al., 458). After adoption, children are brought up with the parents of the same sex. For gay adoption, it involves both male parents (GoldbergRead MoreAdoption Is A Beautiful Process2327 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAdoption is the formal, voluntary process by which adults are legally declared as parents of children who are not their own. Ã¢â¬Å"When you adopt, you become more than the legal parent of a child. You become that childÃ¢â¬â¢s mom or dad Ã¢â¬â in your heart, in your mind, in your body, and in your soul.Ã¢â¬ (Tracy Barr, 14) Adoption is a beautiful process. The adoption process allows children (who were not as blessed to know or stay with their biological parents) a family who can provide for and shelter them. AccordingRead MoreProblems in Foster Care Essay example1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesguardians and for whom the stat agency has placement and care responsibility.Ã¢â¬ This also includes placing them into foster families, foster homes of relatives, emergency shelters, group living, residential homes, child care institutions, and pre adoption places, (TuCollaborative). The ideal foster care system is very beneficial because it helps keep children that Ã¢â¬Å"have no place else to goÃ¢â¬ (du Pont, 48) out of the streets and in safe, protective, loving, family environments, and the people that workedRead MoreHistory of Adoption Essay1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages[UNICEF], 2006). It illustrates the inequality of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in society. Adoption supports childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs by providing parents and provides a better environment for them than an orphanage or foster home. Adoption is an exceptional method to overrule inequality in curr ent society by preserving the human rights and responding to the aspirations of people without children. To provide the historical background of adoption, in ancient times and human cultures, children have been moved from guardiansRead MoreShould Same Sex Couples Be Legal?906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfirst is to adopt a child. There are two general types of adoption: a closed adoption, where there is no contact with between the birth family and the adoptive family, and an open adoption, where there is some association between the birth family and adoptive family. There are other types of adoption that are more specific to what a person wants such as international adoption, infant adoption and adopting a foster child (Types of Adoptions). The process of adopting for same sex couples is slightlyRead MoreAdoption Is Not An Expensive Process1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand in desperate need of someone to love them unconditionally, showing them that no matter what they are wanted. Adoption is one of the ways couples can have children, through the adoption process, couples can rescue a child from a life in the child welfare system, giving them a family and a hope of a better life, even through the contentious issue of interracial adoptions. Adoption Process The first step is figuring out if the parent really wants to adopt, weighing the pros and cons and deciding
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Report for Contract Law and the Remedies. Answer: This case study highlights the provisions of contract law and the remedies which needs to be taken when a contract is breached. The given case study is between three persons named as Bill, Jill and Dodgy Pty Ltd. Bill and Jill entered into a contract with Dodgy Pty Ltd for the purchase of a Food Caf. As per the contract Dodgy Pty Ltd states them that the weekly earnings from the caf would be $10,000 and the weekly costs would be $3,000. This means that the contract had stated that weekly profit for both Bill and Jill would be $7,000. But the actual scenario was very different from the contract. Actually the weekly earnings were only $2,000 and the costs were $3,000. This means that the caf was having a weekly loss of $1,000. The difference between the profit from the contract and actual $8,000. This clearly shows that Dodgy Pty Ltd had breached the contract which was signed with Bill and Jill. Now Bill and Jill have the right to take action against the company.(lawhandbook.org.au, 20 16) The terms in a contract are very important because it would either be termed as warranties or conditions. Terms which are considered to be essential for the contract are called as condition and which are nit essential are called as warranties. The condition of the current contract was the weekly payment earned by the caf. Due to this condition Bill and Jill had signed the contract. If this condition was not there then Bill and Jill would not have signed the contract. The same was with the case of Luna Park Case.(smh.com.au, 2016) A contract can either be void or voidable at the option of one of the parties involved. If one of the parties have breached the terms of the contract then the other party has the right to void the contract. Company had made a false statement that caf will earn $10,000 every week. But the actual situation was completely different. So Bill and Jill has the right to void the contract. Both of them need to suffer losses, so they have the right to recover the damage charges from the company. In this case there was a breach of contract and the breach had even cause damage and loss to Bill and Jill. Loss was clearly identified, while signing the contract they expected a profit of $7,000 per week but actually they were incurring losses for $1,000. This means in total they were incurring losses for $8,000 which was same as Hadley v Baxendale and Victoria Laundry v Newman Industries. (lawnix.com, 2016) Both Bill and Jill has the right to claim damage charges from the company since the company had made a false statement in the contract. The false statement made was that the caf would earn $10,000 every week but actually it was just earning $2,000 every week. Bill and Jill suffered losses $1,000 every week. So they will recover these losses from the company as per the Australian Contract Law. 2. Part a) This case highlights about the situations when a company had issued an unsafe product in the market. One of the customers had died after eating the product and so what actions can be taken against the company are discussed in this case. All the relevant laws related to this case study are discussed below in detail. A tort Law is said to be a wrongful act committed by a person against another person who might harm him. If a person has to prove that other person wad harm him then he needs to prove that the said person had owed him a duty. And due to his breach of negligence he had to suffer. Defendant needs to perform his duty with reasonable care, if reasonable care is not taken then it would be considered as breach of duty. Similar situations were there in case of Modbury Triangle Shopping Centre v Anzil. (law.wustl.edu/, 2016) Civil Liability Act 2003 explains the situations when a defendant had breached the duty of care. There are some factors which needs to be considered whenever a duty is breached. The factors are: How serious is the harm to the plaintiff? How much is the probability that harm would occur if care was not taken? How much is social utility involved when the duty was breached? How much burden would have been there to avoid harm? (wiki.qut.edu.au/, 2016) There is one more situation named as Factual Causation. In this scenario plaintiff was affected and harm was cause to him due to the breach of the duty by the defendant. Whenever defendant breaches his duty which causes harm to the plaintiff then it is to be called as Factual Causation. Competition and Consumer Act 2010 states that a consumer is a person who satisfies at least one of the following Involved in the purchase of any transportation. Costs $40,000 or less. Purchases goods for personal or household use. (Australian Government, 2016) As per Section 18 of the Act if any person has made a comment in public which is false or misleading then he comes under this section. A person would be held under misleading conduct if he had made any misleading statements like in the case of Henjo v Collins. Even in the case of Accounting Systems 2000 v CCH some false guaranties and warranties were made but these were not intentional. This test would include that person who is selling their products to the public. (store.lexisnexis.com.au, 2016) Section 54 of the Consumer Protection Act states that the goods which are introduced in the marker must be safe and free from defects. The goods should not be available in the market if the customers knows that the goods are not free from defects.(saflii.org, 2016) As per Section 60 of the Act guarantee must be provided in relation to goods and services. The services which are performed in public must be delivered with reasonable skill and care and should also be delivered within a reasonable period of time. As per Part 3 and 5 manufacturers and importers would be considered liable for any loss, injury or damage if the product produced but them have a defect. Part b) In this answer we need to conclude that who has the authority to take action against the company and what remedies would be available. The main problem with the company was that it was using his own car to deliver pizzas. The pizza was delivered by his son and they have named that car service as UberPizzaDelivery. This means they have stolen the name from other company which was not correct. When they had advertised about their pizza that have stated that only fresh ingredients of the cheese are used in it which are taken straight from the farm. But actually they were using a substitute old and out of date cheese in his pizzas. Due to this a customer got very sick from the stale and then he died. Whenever a company is issuing a product in market then it has to ensure that it is safe. Customer are trusting the company and buying their product but if in return company is selling a product which is unsafe then it is not fair for the customers. In this case while eating pizza a customer has even died. This was intentional by the company to use an old outdated cheese. All the customers and even the family members of the customer who had died has the right to take action against the company. The government would take action against the company because it has violated the provisions mentioned in Consumer and Competition Act. Actions which needs to be taken against him was to be taken by the family of the died customer and even the general public. He had made a product which was unsafe for the public. If action is taken against them then as per Civil and Criminal breaches of ACL Hugh would be entitle to pay fine up to $1.1 Million for companies and $220,000 for individuals. Here Hugh is an individual so he would be entitled to pay penalty for an amount of $220,000. After the payment of this fine by Hugh then as per Section 223 of the ACL a public warning notice must be issued against the company. Notice should clearly state that the Hughs pizza is very harmful for the public so it is better to please avoid the pizza. Consumers can easily take action against him in small claims Tribunals or special divisions of the lower courts. They main aim is to offer dispute resolution which is generally quick, inexpensive fair and less formal. The claim which is made by the consumers should also be under the monetary limit of the given law. Hence company has to pay compensation to the family members who had died and product of such pizzas should be immediately stopped. Government also has the right to ban the company from producing any product. Bibliography Anon., 2016. [Online] Available at: https://www.lawnix.com/cases/hadley-baxendale.html [Accessed 10th September 2016]. Australian Government, 2016. Competition and Consumer Act 2010. [Online] Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2011C00003 [Accessed 9th September 2016]. law.wustl.edu/, 2016. NEGLIGENCE. [Online] Available at: https://law.wustl.edu/sba/firstyearoutlines/torts/Unknown/TORTS_OUTLINE.pdf [Accessed 10th September 2016]. lawhandbook.org.au, 2016. Elements of a contract. [Online] Available at: https://www.google.co.in/#q=elements+of+a+contract+australia [Accessed 10th September 2016]. lawnix.com, 2016. Hadley v. Baxendale Case Brief Summary. [Online] Available at: https://www.lawnix.com/cases/hadley-baxendale.html [Accessed 10th September 2016]. NSW, 2016. AUSTRALIAN CONSUMER LAW AND FAIR TRADING ACT 2012. [Online] Available at: https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/num_act/aclafta201221o2012418/ [Accessed 9th September 2016]. saflii.org, 2016. The Consumer Protection Act and five common law principles.. [Online] Available at: https://www.saflii.org/za/journals/DEREBUS/2013/17.html [Accessed 10th September 2016]. smh.com.au, 2016. Residents take Luna Park to court. [Online] Available at: https://www.smh.com.au/news/national/residents-take-luna-park-to-court/2007/06/05/1180809467892.html [Accessed 10th September 2016]. store.lexisnexis.com.au, 2016. LexisNexis. [Online] Available at: https://store.lexisnexis.com.au/product?product=lexisnexis-annotated-acts-annotated-civil-liability-legislation-queensland-3rd-editionmeta_F_and=9780409331899 [Accessed 10th September 2016]. wiki.qut.edu.au/, 2016. Civil Liability Act 2003 (Qld). [Online] Available at: https://wiki.qut.edu.au/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=5250988 [Accessed 10th September 2016].